NCERT Solutions Class 12 Physics

22 Oct, 2018

The National Council for Educational Research and Training is one resource which deals with educational establishments and developments across the country. It publishes books for students affiliated to both private and public schools at all standards to simplify the education process concerning all the subjects. There are three streams namely, Science, Commerce and Arts/Humanities respectively. NCERT produces the solutions for each chapter related to the subjects included in each respective stream. The solutions not only help the students in grasping a good idea of how to write the answers in the3 examinations but also make them realize the pattern of paper along with the typology of questions and marking scheme defining the same. The 12th board examinations hold worth and that can be justified with quantitative as well as qualitative preparations. Read out the article to find out the NCERT Solutions Class 12 Physics for the current academic year 2018-19.

The Core Subjects in 12 Science

  1. Physics
  2. Chemistry
  3. Biology
  4. Mathematics
  5. English

Introduction to Physics in Class 12

Physics– Physics is such a discipline of natural science that concerns itself with the energy and force, friction and laws. It is regarded as the most significant basis of science as it grasps the universe laws proving the actions scientifically. Students opting for the science stream are expected to carry out their practice constant for this subject throughout the board examination season as it is considered really tough. The most prominent way to secure maximum marks in physics is possible when the students opt for the solving of previous year sample question papers. This not only gives them a vast knowledge about the type of questions striking the examination but allocates them marks according to the marking scheme predefining the questions. The questions are relevant as they are designed by the subject experts and the marking scheme defines the long as well as short answer questions. Most of the chapters are not accomplished by the teachers in the schools, either because of the lack of time. But none of the subjects is to be taken casually and thus, needs proper concentration and attention not only on the part of the teachers but students as well. Thus, the practice papers, tuition or coaching centers, proper introduction to the formula, and also the allocation of time for studying enhances the skills in students.

Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2019

Sr. No. Name Marks
Unit I Electrostatics 15
  Chapter-1: Electric Charges and Fields
  Chapter-2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Unit II Current Electricity
  Chapter-3: Current Electricity
Unit III Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism 16
  Chapter-4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
  Chapter-5: Magnetism and Matter
Unit IV Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current
  Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction
  Chapter-7: Alternating Current
Unit V Electromagnetic Waves 17
  Chapter-8: Electromagnetic Waves
Unit VI Optics
  Chapter-9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
  Chapter-10: Wave Optics
Unit VII Dual Nature of Matter 10
  Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Unit VIII Atoms & Nuclei
  Chapter-12: Atoms
  Chapter-13: Nuclei
Unit IX Electronic Devices 12
  Chapter-14: Semiconductor Electronics
Unit X Communication Systems
  Chapter-15: Communication Systems
  Total 70

Objectives of the Physics Topics Mentioned in the Syllabus

    Unit number ‒ I: Electrostatics

    Chapter ‒ 1: Electric Charges and Fields

    • Conservation of charge
    • Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges
    • Forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution
    • Electric field
    • Electric field due to a point charge
    • Electric field lines
    • Electric dipole
    • Electric field due to a dipole
    • Torque on a dipole in uniform electric field
    • Electric flux
    • Statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire
    • Uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

    Chapter ‒ 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

    • Electric potential
    • potential difference
    • electric potential due to a point charge
    • a dipole and system of charges; equi potential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field
    • Conductors and insulators
    • free charges and bound charges inside a conductor
    • Dielectrics and electric polarization
    • capacitors and capacitance
    • combination of capacitors in series and in parallel
    • capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates
    • Energy stored in a capacitor.

    Unit number ‒ II: Current Electricity

    Chapter ‒ 3: Current Electricity

    • Electric current; flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor; drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current;
    • Ohm’s law, electrical resistance
    • V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear)
    • electrical energy and power
    • electrical resistivity and conductivity
    • Carbon resistors
    • color code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance
    • Internal resistance of a cell; potential difference and emf of a cell; combination of cells in series and in parallel; Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications; Wheatstone bridge, meter bridge.
    • Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

    Unit number ‒ III: Magnetic Effects of Current & Magnetism

    Chapter ‒ 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

    Concept of magnetic field

    • Oersted’s experiment
    • Biot ‒ Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop
    • Ampere’s law & its applications to infinitely long straight wire
    • Straight and toroidal solenoids (only equivalent treatment); Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields; Cyclotron
    • Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field; force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere
    • Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter

    Chapter ‒ 5: Magnetism and Matter

    • Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment; magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron; magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis; torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid; magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements
    • Para-, dia- and ferromagnetic substances, with examples
    • Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths; permanent magnets

    Unit number ‒ IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

    Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction

    • Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents
    • Self and mutual induction

    Chapter-7: Alternating Current

    • Alternating currents
    • peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only); LCR series circuit; resonance; power in AC circuits, power factor wattless current
    • AC generator and transformer

    Unit number ‒ V: Electromagnetic waves

    Chapter-8: Electromagnetic Waves

    • Basic idea of displacement current
    • Electromagnetic waves their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only)
    • Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses

    Unit number ‒ VI: Optics

    Chapter-9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

    • Ray Optics: Reflection of light; spherical mirrors; mirror formula; refraction of light; total internal reflection and its applications; optical fibres; refraction at spherical surfaces; lenses; thin lens formula; lensmaker’s formula; magnification, power of a lens; combination of thin lenses in contact; refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
    • Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset
    • Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

    Chapter-10: Wave Optics

    • Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’s principle; reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts
    • Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’s principle
    • Interference; Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width
    • coherent sources and sustained interference of light; diffraction due to a single slit; width of central maximum; resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, polarization
    • plane polarized light; Brewster’s law; uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids

    Unit number ‒ VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

    Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

    • Dual nature of radiation; Photoelectric effect; Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light
    • Matter waves-wave nature of particles; de Broglie relation; Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained)

    Unit number ‒ VIII: Atoms & Nuclei

    Chapter-12: Atoms

    • Alpha-particle scattering experiment;
    • Rutherford’s model of atom;
    • Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum

    Unit number ‒ IX: Electronic Devices

    Chapter-14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

    • Energy bands in conductors; semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)
    • Semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier;
    • Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics; Zener diode as a voltage regulator
    • Junction transistor; transistor action; characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration); basic idea of analog and digital signals; Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR)

    Unit number ‒ X: Communication Systems

    Chapter ‒ 15: Communication Systems

    • Elements of a communication system (block diagram only);
    • Bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data);
    • Bandwidth of transmission medium
    • Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere
    • sky & space wave propagation
    • satellite communication
    • Need for modulation
    • amplitude modulation and frequency modulation
    • advantages of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation

    Physics Practicals: List of experiments

    Time Allowed: 3 hours Max. Marks: 30
    Two experiments one from each section 8 + 8 Marks
    Practical record [experiments and activities] 6 Marks
    Investigatory Project 3 Marks
    Viva on experiments, activities and projects 5 Marks
    Total 30 Marks

    NCERT Solutions Class 12 Physics: Download Links

    Numbers of Chapters Names of Chapters Download Link
    1 Electric Charges and Fields  
    2 Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance  
    3 Current Electricity  
    4 Moving Charges and Magnetism  
    5 Magnetism And Matter  
    6 Electromagnetic Induction  
    7 Alternating Current  
    8 Electromagnetic Waves  
    9 Ray Optics and Optical Instruments  
    10 Wave Optics  
    11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter  
    12 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter  
    13 Atoms  
    14 Nuclei  
    15 Semiconductor Electronic: Material, Devices And Simple Circuits Communication Systems  

    The Best Preparation Strategies for 12 Class Physics Students

    Time management: Time is the most essential factor enclosing the students appearing in the board examinations. It is very important for all the 12th standard science students to prepare a perfect study plan after they get introduced to the proper curriculum and date sheet published by the board officials. Time is a great factor that illustrates the management method of the students and the way they allocate the same to each of the concepts for learning and understanding.

    Regular Self Study: A regular study can keep all restraints and stress away. If students appearing for the 12th board examinations indulge into the process of regular self-study, then they will see themselves enhancing the concepts again and again. Once they start with the tough concepts and then revise them again and again and every time they revise it, they get a clearer perspective about the same. The self-study process keeps the students in pace with accurate preparation.

    Qualitative Consultation: Consultation with the seniors who have passed out in the specific stream, parents and also the subject teachers in schools can act as assistance for the applicants. The masses that have already passed and or qualified through the stage can well explain and advise the fresh applicants about the ways to prepare for the examinations and also about the type of books that they can refer to score outstanding.  

    Practice Previous Year Samples: The board applicants must inculcate the habit of collecting/downloading or purchasing the previous year sample question papers for the subjects they are seeking to reach out. Referring to them helps them to grasp an idea of the marking scheme, knowledge of the typology of questions occurring, and also the pattern of the question papers designed by the board conducting the examinations.

    Assemble with Answer keys or solutions: The board students must gain access to the solution keys for the questions one have answered. This helps the students check the accurate answers of the questions and also the ones carrying scores for the same.

    Various Scope of Study after Class 12 Science 2019

    The students who opt for the Science stream are the ones gathering interest for the engineering approach- electrical/mechanical/automobile/computer/software/civil and others included according to the interest. Moreover, the students also seek out for the medical line to become doctors in various specializations, respectively. For both the professions, the students are required to crack through the competitive examinations namely, JEE (Joint Entrance Examinations) and NEET (National Eligibility and Entrance Test) that get conducted for all the aspirants looking forward to get represented. Physics in total is one of the most important concepts of science stream that needs proper study and focus in order to allow the best scores get your trace.

    The whole article is completely based upon the idea of the NCERT Solutions Class 12 Physics for all the students in the science stream preparing for the board examinations for the current academic year 2018-19, respectively.


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