NCERT solutions class 12 Chemistry: PDF Download

23 Oct, 2018

NCERT solutions class 12 Chemistry– There are many students who get really confused about how to write answers in chemistry for its equations and various formulas. Chemistry is a subject posing many questions with a lot of similar sense reflecting on one another. It is the responsibility of the students to make sure that they are clear with all the concepts to understand them well and after that differentiate all of them. Understanding what the question has to say is very important to come up with the answers of the same. The answers and their length according to their comprehensible meaning is what the students must maintain well in the exam so as to avoid wastage of time and effort. To understand every question well as then draft answers, the students must make sure that they follow the NCERT solutions class 12 Chemistry. NCERT has grabbed the responsibility of answering all the questions that possibly the students can ask for regarding the book. It is not possible to produce vivid and subtle answers within the school hours and this is the reason why the students must opt for the NCERT solutions for the specific subject to come up with various answers clarifying their doubts for the same without leaving behind any query on the part of the students.

Scholarship

NCERT stands for National Council for Educational Research and Training. NCERT popularizes itself for rendering the best education to all the students affiliated to vivid board educational authorities at the school level of education. It is known to be the most comprehensive and student friendly board of education imparting students the quality of studies they need particularly based on the syllabus prescribed accurately by the board officials, respectively. The purpose and rationale of the NCERT books do not just stay limited or restricted to the school level of education but also goes beyond in offering the root level education to all the students based completely on the standard they are studying in. These above mentioned are the best reasons that define the reason why school boards expect the students to refer the NCERT books for better understanding and maximum marks.

NCERT solutions class 12 Chemistry: PDF D

Serial Number Name of the Chapters Download PDF
1. The Solid State  
2. Solutions  
3. Electrochemistry  
4. Chemical Kinetics  
5. Surface Chemistry  
6. General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements  
7. The p-Block Elements  
8. The d and f Block Elements  
9. Coordination Compounds  
10. Haloalkanes and Haloarenes  
11. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers  
12. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids  
13. Amines  
14. Biomolecules  
15. Polymers  
16. Chemistry in Everyday   

Objectives of the chapters:

    The study of chemistry as a discipline is difficult if the concepts concerning the same are not clarified in the minds of the children studying the same. So, it is very necessary to be clarified at the school level so as to help the students pursue the same at the later stage of higher education that is in Pharma or medicine fields. The connectivity of the students with the subject is necessary if the students want to grab maximum marks with fluency in the same in any of the competitive or entrance examinations in future. There are a totality of 16 chapters which the students ought to understand, and then practice in order to remember everything fluently in order to solve every type of questions in the board examinations day without any doubts put up as an obstacle. This is the most justified reason why the NCERT solutions class 12 Chemistry is mandatory on the part of all the students, respectively.

    Solid State

    • Chemistry Solid State Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea)
    • Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices
    • calculation of density of unit cell
    • packing in solids
    • packing efficiency
    • voids
    • number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell
    • point defects
    • electrical and magnetic properties
    • Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors

    Solutions

    • Solutions Types of solutions
    • expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids
    • solubility of gases in liquids
    • solid solutions
    • colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van’t Hoff factor

    Electrochemistry

    • Electrochemistry Redox reactions
    • conductance in electrolytic solutions
    • specific and molar conductivity
    • variations of conductivity with concentration
    • Kohlrausch’s Law
    • electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea)
    • dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells
    • lead accumulator
    • EMF of a cell
    • standard electrode potential
    • Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells
    • Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell
    • fuel cells
    • corrosion

    Chemical Kinetics

    • Chemical Kinetics Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous)
    • factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst
    • order and molecularity of a reaction
    • rate law and specific rate constant
    • integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions)
    • concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)
    • Activation energy
    • Arrhenious equation

    Surface Chemistry

    • Surface Chemistry Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption
    • factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids
    • catalysis
    • homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity
    • enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions
    • colloids and suspension
    • lyophilic
    • lyophobic multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids
    • properties of colloids
    • Tyndall effect
    • Brownian movement
    • electrophoresis
    • coagulation
    • emulsion – types of emulsions

    General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

    • General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles
    • methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction
    • electrolytic method and refining
    • occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron

    The p-Block Elements

    • The p-Block Elements Group -15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties
    • Nitrogen preparation properties and uses
    • compounds of Nitrogen, preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen(Structure only)
    • Phosphorus – allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and Properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only)
    • Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen
    • Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms
    • compounds of Sulphur: Preparation Properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses
    • Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only)
    • Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties
    • compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only)
    • Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses

    The d- and f- Block Elements

    • The d- and f- Block Elements General introduction
    • electronic configuration
    • occurrence and characteristics of transition metals
    • general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4
    • Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences
    • Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids

    Coordination Compounds

    • Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes
    • IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds
    • Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT, and CFT
    • structure and stereoisomerism
    • importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system)

    Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

    • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation
    • Haloarenes: Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only)
    • Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT

    Alcohols Phenols and Ethers

    • Alcohols Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol
    • Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols
    • Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses

    Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

    • Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes: uses
    • Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses

    Amines

    • Nomenclature
    • classification
    • structure
    • methods of preparation
    • physical and chemical properties
    • uses
    • identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines
    • Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in text
    • Diazonium salts:Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry

    Biomolecules

    • Classification (aldoses and ketoses)
    • monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose)
    • D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
    • polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen)
    • Importance of carbohydrates
    • Proteins -Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only)
    • denaturation of proteins
    • enzymes
    • Hormones – Elementary idea excluding structure. Vitamins -Classification and functions
    • Nucleic Acids:DNA and RNA

    Polymers

    • natural and synthetic
    • methods of polymerization (addition and condensation)
    • copolymerization
    • some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers

    Chemistry in Everyday Life

    • analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics
    • disinfectants
    • antimicrobials
    • antifertility drugs
    • antibiotics
    • antacids
    • antihistamines
    • Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action

    The above article explains well all the objectives of the NCERT chemistry syllabus and also the NCERT solutions class 12 Chemistry for the students appearing in the 12th board examinations from the science stream, respectively.

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