NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology- Pdf Download

23 Oct, 2018

The NCERT (National Council for educational Research and Training) is a renowned centre which imparts the most quality education and is popular for its courses and ways of dealing with academic. Every year the students appear for the board examinations for both 10th and 12th standards from various schools both private and public from several board affiliations of education. It has been observed that education courses and curriculums offered by NCERT are always preferred more friendly and convenient for the board students and students studying in the lower standards over any other educational recourse. This is because the NCERT takes care of the accurate syllabus/curriculum of the subjects of every stream separately and along with the same about the marking scheme prescribed for each long and short typology of questions referring to the various subjects included in the syllabus. The NCERT solutions class 12 biology is one among the other subjects of science stream which cultivates lot of queries even after the concepts are taught in schools. This is because it is not possible to accomplish all the questions at once, in class and that is why the students are referred the NCERT solutions class 12 biology PDF download formatted links that will really assist them to come up with all the answers to the possible questions raised against in mind regarding the particular subject. The article provided the students with the solution to all the questions for all the chapters in the biology subject, respectively in a comprehensible hierarchy.

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology- Pdf Download

Serial Number Name of the Chapters Download PDF
1. Reproduction in Organism  
2. Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants  
3. Human Reproduction  
4. Reproductive Health  
5. Principles of Inheritance and Variation  
6. Molecular Basis of Inheritance  
7. Evolution  
8. Human Health and Disease  
9. Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production  
10. Microbes in Human Welfare  
11. Biotechnology: Principles and Processes  
12. Biotechnology and its Applications  
13. Organisms and Populations  
14. Ecosystem  
15. Biodiversity and Conservation  
16. Environmental Issues  

Objectives of the Class 12 Biology Curriculum

Reproduction in Organisms

  • Reproduction in Organisms Reproduction
  • A characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction – binary fission
  • Sporulation
  • Budding
  • Gem mule formation
  • Fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants

    Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

    • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Flower structure
    • Development of male and female gametophytes
    • Pollination – types
    • Agencies and examples
    • Out breeding devices
    • Pollen-pistil interaction
    • Double fertilization
    • Post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit
    • Special modes-apomixes
    • Parthenocarpy
    • Polyembryony
    • Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation

    Human Reproduction

    • Human Reproduction Male And Female Reproductive Systems
    • Microscopic Anatomy Of Testis And Ovary
    • Gametogenesis – Spermatogenesis And Oogenesis
    • Menstrual Cycle
    • Fertilisation
    • Embryo Development Upto Blastocyst Formation
    • Implantation
    • Pregnancy And Placenta Formation (Elementary Idea)
    • Parturition (Elementary Idea)
    • Lactation (Elementary Idea)

    Reproductive Health

    • Reproductive Health Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
    • Birth control – need and methods
    • Contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP)
    • Amniocentesis
    • Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness)

    Principles of Inheritance and Variation

    • Principles of Inheritance and Variation Heredity and variation
    • Mendelian inheritance
    • Deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance
    • Co-dominance
    • Multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups
    • Pleiotropy
    • Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance
    • Chromosome theory of inheritance
    • Chromosomes and genes
    • Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee

    Linkage and crossing over sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia

    • Chromosomal disorders in humans
    • Down’s syndrome
    • Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes

    Molecular Basis of Inheritance

    • Molecular Basis of Inheritance Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material
    • Structure of DNA and RNA
    • DNA packaging
    • DNA replication
    • Central dogma
    • Transcription
    • Genetic code
    • Translation
    • Gene expression and regulation – lac operon
    • Genome and human and rice genome projects
    • DNA fingerprinting


    • Evolution Origin of life
    • Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences)
    • Darwin’s contribution
    • Modern synthetic theory of evolution
    • Mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples
    • Types of natural selection
    • Gene flow and genetic drift
    • Hardy – Weinberg’s principle
    • Adaptive radiation
    • Human evolution

    Human Health and Disease

    • Human Health and Disease Pathogens
    • parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control
    • Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS;
    • Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.

    Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

    • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Improvement in food production:
    • Plant breeding
    • tissue culture
    • single cell protein
    • Biofortification
    • Apiculture and Animal husbandry

    Microbes in Human Welfare

    • Microbes in Human Welfare In household food processing
    • industrial production
    • sewage treatment
    • energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers
    • Antibiotics; production and judicious use

    Biotechnology Principles and Processes

    • Biotechnology Principles and Processes CBSE Class 12 biology subject Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology)
    • Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology)
    • Biotechnology and its Applications
    • Biology Biotechnology and its Applications Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture
    • Human insulin and vaccine production
    • stem cell technology
    • gene therapy
    • genetically modified organisms – Bt crops
    • transgenic animals
    • biosafety issues
    • bio piracy and patents

    Organisms and Populations

    • Organisms and Populations Organisms and environment
    • Habitat and niche
    • population and ecological adaptations
    • population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution


    • Ecosystem Ecosystems: Patterns, components
    • productivity and decomposition
    • energy flow
    • pyramids of number, biomass, energy
    • nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous)
    • ecological succession
    • ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief)

    Biodiversity and Conservation

    • Biodiversity and Conservation Concept of biodiversity
    • patterns of biodiversity
    • importance of biodiversity
    • loss of biodiversity
    • biodiversity conservation
    • hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites

    Environmental Issues

    • Environmental Issues Air pollution and its control
    • water pollution and its control
    • agrochemicals and their effects
    • solid waste management
    • radioactive waste management
    • greenhouse effect and climate change
    • ozone layer depletion
    • deforestation
    • any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s)

    How to Score in Class 12 Biology?

    1. Discover all your weak points in the concepts of biology and clarify the queries from the NCERT solutions class 12 biology.
    2. Make sure that you gather the maximum marks from biology because it helps you exceed your expectation after memorizing the terms, definitions and key points.
    3. Make sure that you are able to differentiate between the terms of biology. Then clarify your concepts for all the terms and explanations through proper understanding.
    4. Focus on the Biotechnology Principles and Processes, Microbes in Human Welfare, Evolution, and Molecular Basis of Inheritance for extracting the maximum scores through remembrance.


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